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2021/6/25 1:44:36 人评论

为什么要分层? 分层好处是降低耦合,上层不关心底层实现,只关心底层提供服务(接口),属于面向接口设计,这样层与层之间通信就可以标准化。 标准化意味着底层可扩展,可替换&#xff0c…

为什么要分层?

分层好处是降低耦合,上层不关心底层实现,只关心底层提供服务(接口),属于面向接口设计,这样层与层之间通信就可以标准化。 标准化意味着底层可扩展,可替换,给协议设计带来很大灵活性和扩展性,便于实现和维护。

0.帧格式和数据报格式

帧格式

[重点:以太网帧格式](https://blog.csdn.net/hutongxue434/article/details/106458397?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455595116780269852662%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334.pc%255Fall.%2522%257D&request_id=162455595116780269852662&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~first_rank_v2~rank_v29-2-106458397.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=%E5%90%84%E7%A7%8D%E5%B8%A7%E6%A0%BC%E5%BC%8F&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

[数据报格式](https://blog.csdn.net/dgh112233/article/details/82586633?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455603016780265488832%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455603016780265488832&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~sobaiduend~default-1-82586633.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=%E6%95%B0%E6%8D%AE%E6%8A%A5%E6%A0%BC%E5%BC%8F&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

1. 物理层:上行下行 [上行链路下行链路](https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_46259642/article/details/115391147?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455317616780271533924%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334.pc%255Fall.%2522%257D&request_id=162455317616780271533924&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~first_rank_v2~rank_v29-1-115391147.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=+%E4%B8%8A%E8%A1%8C%E4%B8%8B%E8%A1%8C%E9%80%9A%E4%BF%A1&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

2.复用技术  [复用技术 ADSL](https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_43698328/article/details/103447963?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455323116780366576661%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334.pc%255Fall.%2522%257D&request_id=162455323116780366576661&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~first_rank_v2~rank_v29-2-103447963.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=%E6%97%B6%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E9%A2%91%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E6%B3%A2%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E7%A0%81%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

[复用技术2](https://blog.csdn.net/super828/article/details/105548574?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455323216780261941903%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455323216780261941903&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~baidu_landing_v2~default-1-105548574.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=%E6%97%B6%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E9%A2%91%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E6%B3%A2%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E7%A0%81%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

[复用技术3](https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_36465540/article/details/104888952?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455323116780366576661%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334.pc%255Fall.%2522%257D&request_id=162455323116780366576661&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~first_rank_v2~rank_v29-6-104888952.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=%E6%97%B6%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E9%A2%91%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E6%B3%A2%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8+%E7%A0%81%E5%88%86%E5%A4%8D%E7%94%A8&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

3.[各协议层](https://blog.csdn.net/zh521zh/article/details/52086251?locationNum=10&fps=1&utm_medium=distribute.pc_relevant.none-task-blog-baidujs_title-4&spm=1001.2101.3001.4242)

4.[Internet校验和checksum](https://blog.csdn.net/f2157120/article/details/86497152?utm_medium=distribute.pc_relevant.none-task-blog-baidujs_baidulandingword-0&spm=1001.2101.3001.4242)

5.[局域网扩展的硬件设备](https://www.cnblogs.com/Chuck-Yue/p/10395644.html)

[冲突域和广播域](https://blog.csdn.net/u011228842/article/details/91410867?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455617516780274163088%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455617516780274163088&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~top_positive~default-1-91410867.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=%E5%86%B2%E7%AA%81%E5%9F%9F&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

[硬件2](https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_39445036/article/details/106148091)

[区别](https://net.zol.com.cn/640/6403251.html)

[区别](https://www.zhihu.com/question/20465477)

6.[RS232电气特性以及帧格式](https://blog.csdn.net/qlrlili/article/details/7432396)

1位起始位+7位有效位(可显示字符,所以是7位)+1位结束位。以低电平(1)作为空间位

7.[奈奎斯特定理和香农定理](https://www.sohu.com/a/219750202_464086)

香农定理:

(1)提高信道的信噪比或增加信道的带宽都可以增加信道容量。

(2)当信道中噪声功率N无穷趋于0时,信道容量C无穷趋于无限大,这就是说无干扰信道的信道容量可以为无穷大。

(3)信道容量C一定时,带宽W与信噪比S/N之间可以互换,即减小带宽,同时提高信噪比,可以维持原来信道容量。

(4)信噪比一定时,增加带宽W可以增大信道容量。但噪声为高斯白噪声时(实际的通信系统背景噪声大多为高斯白噪),增加带宽同时会造成信噪比下降,因此无限增大带宽也只能对应有限信道容量。

奈奎斯特定理C=B*log 2 N 

(1)给定了信道的带宽,则该信道的极限波特率就确定了,不可能超过这个极限波特率传输码元,除非改善该信道的带宽;

(2)要想增加信道的比特传送率有两条途径,一方面可以增加该信道的带宽,另一方面可以选择更高的编码方式。

8.[DNS原理](https://blog.csdn.net/yipiankongbai/article/details/25031461?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455529016780262553868%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455529016780262553868&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~top_positive~default-1-25031461.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=DNS%E5%8E%9F%E7%90%86&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

9.[网卡作用](https://blog.csdn.net/qq_41973914/article/details/106158296?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455544316780255223644%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455544316780255223644&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~sobaiduend~default-2-106158296.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=%E7%BD%91%E5%8D%A1%E7%9A%84%E4%BD%9C%E7%94%A8&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

10.[TCP拥塞控制](https://blog.csdn.net/qq_41431406/article/details/97926927?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455550516780261913616%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455550516780261913616&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~top_positive~default-1-97926927.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=%E6%8B%A5%E5%A1%9E%E6%8E%A7%E5%88%B6&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

11.[TCP流量控制](https://blog.csdn.net/Allen_Walker_QAQ/article/details/80719269?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455555816780262588463%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455555816780262588463&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~sobaiduend~default-2-80719269.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=tcp%E6%B5%81%E9%87%8F%E6%8E%A7%E5%88%B6&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

[两个控制](https://blog.csdn.net/yechaodechuntian/article/details/25429143?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455555816780262588463%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455555816780262588463&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~top_positive~default-1-25429143.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=tcp%E6%B5%81%E9%87%8F%E6%8E%A7%E5%88%B6&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

12.[TCP的所有机制](https://blog.csdn.net/m0_46123217/article/details/116380241?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455561616780366555952%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455561616780366555952&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~baidu_landing_v2~default-1-116380241.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=tcp%E5%9B%9B%E5%A4%A7%E6%9C%BA%E5%88%B6&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

因为TCP一定是点对点的,所以广播组播不可能使用TCP协议。广播和多播仅应用于UDP

13.一些区别

[RIP和OSPF的区别](https://blog.csdn.net/m0_37345402/article/details/85447393?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455607516780269859084%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455607516780269859084&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~top_positive~default-1-85447393.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=RIP%E5%92%8COSPF%E7%9A%84%E5%8C%BA%E5%88%AB&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

[TCP和UDP](https://blog.csdn.net/zhang6223284/article/details/81414149?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522162455612116780274187784%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334..%2522%257D&request_id=162455612116780274187784&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~all~top_positive~default-1-81414149.first_rank_v2_pc_rank_v29&utm_term=TCP%E5%92%8Cudp&spm=1018.2226.3001.4187)

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